Phrenology and the Localization Debates
Physiognomy and Emotions
Psychology and Sensation
In summary, experimental and cultural changes in the 19th and 20th centuries continued to show a plasticity of ideas as creative people developed novel techniques to probe the inner and outer landscape. Localization, physiognomy, psychology, and sensation were key topics of interest that we can identify within both the scientific and cultural communities. As the final chapters show, these topics continue to engage minds and products of the mind delineate this. In the next two chapters I will turn to an array of innovative tools that that show how these topics were extended to illustrate motion, microscopic and macroscopic dimensions, and the microstructure of the nervous system. All in all, advancements from photography to motion capture and the recording of case studies of remote (or rare) events have not resolved all the basic translational problems faced by earlier artists, research scientists, and clinicians, but they do continue to aid researchers, as the final chapters demonstrate.